Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as one of the potential risk factor for open angle glaucoma. The inclusion of DM as risk factor is still controversial. The data with respect to the Nepalese population are not available.
Aim and Objective
To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in the Nepalese population.
To determine central corneal thickness (CCT) in the subjects
To examine the relationship between diabetes and IOP
Materials and methods:
A hospital based cross sectional study of patients diagnosed with Type II DM was carried out. The parameters studied were age, gender, IOP, CCT, presence or absence of glaucoma. They were evaluated meticulously of any evidence of findings suggestive of open angle glaucoma. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS, version 11.5. ANOVA test was carried out.
Results: A total number of 113 subjects with Type 2 DM were included. There were 50 males and 60 females. Mean age was 60±10 years. The mean duration of DM was 7.97years (SD= 7.54), median 6 years. Of the total subjects, 31 (27.4%) had open angle glaucoma (p<0.757). Mean IOP was 14.67± 2.63mmHg and CCT, 538.83±22.7 µm. Subjects without glaucoma had lower IOP than with glaucoma (p=0.026, 95% CI -3.27 to -0.21). There was no association between CCT and glaucoma (p=0.072, 95% CI: -0.76 –17.46). Random blood sugar (p<0.0) and intake of oral hypoglycemic agent (p=0.030) was found to have a association with glaucoma. Other parameters like duration of DM (p=0.757), diabetic retinopathy, HbA1c, total cholesterol , LDL, HDL, triglycerides, BMI, fasting blood sugar and post prandil blood sugar did not have any association with glaucoma.
This study failed to find an association of DM with glaucoma though an association between IOP, RBS and CCT with glaucoma was seen .