Maternal diabetes is a well-known risk factor for congenital malformations (CM). Maternal metabolic changes due to poor glycaemic control in first trimester during organogenesis is thought to be the major reason for such malformations.
A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the spectrum of CM associated with maternal diabetes in 13 neonates/fetuses known to Clinical Genetics Department in Liverpool hospital, NSW between 2001-2014.
Fetal /newborn characteristics:
Most fetuses had skeletal abnormalities (84%), while 23% had CVS. Another 23% had GIT, 15% had GUT and 7% had CNS abnormalities. Overall, 46% had malformations involving more than one system.